Monday, November 20, 2017

The History Of Physics

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The Story of physics is, for the most part, a tale of ever-increasing confidence. For three hundred years physics is all about observing and measuring finding out how stuff works. In the early sixteen hundreds, an Italian got the ball rolling by measuring in observing balls rolling. Galileo later dropped different size objects of the leaning tower Pisa to see what would happen. Despite upsetting many individuals during this time with his ideas. Galileo's work became the rock on which modern physics is founded. Later in a time free from angry individuals trying to stop his ides Issac Newton moves things on by abandoning balls and embracing apples. Why he wondered did they always fall downwards not sideways or up.



By 1687 he had an answer. It was a force called gravity. Which worked on balls and apples. And planets holding them in nice predictable orbits around the sun.  In the eighteen hundreds, James Clerk Maxwell cast his eye over more mystery. He showed electricity and magnetism are related and can be combined as one force called electromagnetism. And that light has both electric and magnetic parts that travel in waves like water. Physics was now on the roll with new discoveries built on earlier ones and some even had practical uses. Newton's laws predicted the existence of Neptune. Maxwell's work gives us a radio and TV and there's nothing much more useful than that. Physicist seems had mastered the universe. All that was left was to plug a few remaining holes.

Albert Einstein


But by nineteen hundred the holes were getting bigger.The latest discoveries didn't to build on the old ones.Things like x-rays and radioactivity were just plain weird and in a bad way. All was not well in the world of physics.  Top scientists lord Calvin saw dark clouds hanging over the subject. Then in 1905, a Swiss patent clerk started a full on storm. 26-year-old Albert Einstein tore up the script. First, he claimed that light is a  kind of wave that also comes in packets or particles. In the same year, he published his famous equation E=MC Squared. It says that mass and energy are equivalent.
And if that wasn't shocking enough. He released the mind-blowing results of a thought experiment. So hold on to your heads. It starts with the assumption that the speed of light in a vacuum is constant. Now imagine if someone watches a spaceship flying very fast. What they would see is a ships clocks running slower than their own watch. And the ship was actually shrinking in size. But for the astronauts inside all would be normal. Einstein said that time and space can change. They are relative depending on who's observing them. This is special relativity. Special it might have been But it wasn't enough. Albert had only just started.

Next, he showed how bowls and apples were not the only things subject to gravity. Light, time and
space were also affected. Gravity slows down time. And it warps space. The stronger it is the more spaces warped. And the more light is bent.  Einstein's called this general relativity. His ideas shattered traditional physics. He opened the door to the weird world of the quantum physics. Where cats can be alive and dead. Where everything is uncertain. His famous equation leads to nuclear energy. Without special relativity, the large Hayden collider would be pointless. General relativity predicted those black holes and the big bang.

Thursday, November 9, 2017

What Does G Stand For In Physics

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 What Does G Stand For


Usually, the letter G in physics stands for the gravitational constant. The term was originally presented in Newton's idea of how gravity works universally. Gravitational Constant is also known as Newton's Constant or universal gravitational constant. Either way, you want to say it is a physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects.

G was measured by Cavendish to have the value of 6.673*10^(-11)  Newtons of meters^2/kilogram^2. Which is not only used in Newton’s law of gravitation but and also in Einstein 's theory of relativity as well.

G is also used in the formula F = G*M*m/r^2. 

    Both m and M are masses of two bodies interacting gravitationally.

    r is the separation of their centers of mass.

    F is the force of gravitational attraction between them.

G can also represent local or global gravitational field. Which represents the force of gravity per unit mass acting on an object.

    Gravitational field = 10 N/kg (Near Earth) either local or globally average

G may also represent free-fall acceleration or acceleration of gravity.

Free-Fall Accleration = 10 m/s2 (On Earth )

G refers to the metric prefix Giga as well.  Such as in GHz for GigaHertz. Where Giga represents one billion.

Sunday, November 5, 2017

Luxor Sky Beam - Worlds Largest Beam Or Bug Magnet?

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If you are headed to Vegas you do not want to miss the Luxor Sky Beam. Especially if you are a lover of physics!

Luxor Sky Beam


The Luxor Sky Beam is the by far the strongest beam of light in the world.  Its so bright strobe lights are turned before the beam is fully powered up to warn aircraft. The beam can temporarily blind pilots if they go near it. Supposedly it can even be seen from space. The beam is rated at 42.3 billion candela which is the base unit of luminous intensity in the International System. Such a massive construction was only possible to due using computer-designed, curved mirrors. These mirrors manage to collect the light from 39 xenon lamps. Then the magic happens when the design focuses all the light into one narrow beam. Giving us the end result of the most intense light beam the world has ever witnessed. Astonishingly the beam is can be seen as far as 275 miles away at cruising altitude by aircraft on a good clear night. That is as far away as Los Angeles!

Cost To Run The Beam


As you can imagine running such a massive light might run you quite the electric bill. The 39 lamps that are used to power the project are each rated at a very impressive 7,000 watts.  All cost around $1,200 to replace. But what is even more impressive the $20 dollars an hour electric bill they generate in order to power the 315,00 watts needed to power the system. It's estimated that it costs $51 an hour to operate in total! This most of been too much for even the wealthy hotel and casino owners. After 2008 only half of the lamps are now used at a time.


Insanely Hot Lamp Room

You will find the lamp room about 50 feet below the top of the building. This room is serviced by only two workers each day.  The workers have to replace the lamps every 2000 hours. They also have to keep an eye on the lamps to make sure they are not getting too hot.  This hot room gets up to 300 °F while the lights are operating.  The workers even have to use spacecraft insulation wrap to try to minimize the insane heat coming from lamps as much as possible.

Vegas Sky Beam Created Its Own Ecosystem


Have you ever heard about the Luxor sky beam bugs? The creators of the sky beam probably realized when they first turned the massive light in October 15, 1993, they were turning on the worlds largest sky beam. However, no one knew they were also turning on the world's largest bug magnet! That's right, very soon after the light was turned on a lot of moths made their way to the Beam. In the future maybe instead of saying like moths to a flame, we should say like moths to a sky bream? But the fun did not end there. Soon after the moths arrived the beam technicians soon found out the huge number of moths were attracting a likewise huge amount of bats hungry for moth dinner. The story does not end there. Soon after the bats arrived a likewise huge number of owls showed up for the bats. Yeah so apparently, owls like some good moth feed bat meat. Now, my friends, we have a little man-made ecosystem going on in Vegas.

Faraday Flashlight - How Shake Flashlights Work?

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Have you ever heard of a magic shake flashlight? Check out our breakdown of the famous Faraday Flashlight and find out if they are legit.

What Is The Point Of A Shake Flashlight?



A shake flashlight or a Faraday Flashlight does not require batteries. This just seems like a scam until you figure out how the light works. This can be a huge relief to someone who does not want to worry about buying new batteries everytime they turn around. Not to mention maybe your in a situation such a random blackout and make your way to your flashlight only to find out your batteries are dead. 

How Does A Faraday Flashlight Work



It's called a Faraday flashlight because it's based on Faraday's law. This is sometimes referred to as Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. The most important things you will find inside the flashlight is a copper wire coil with somewhere in the thousands of windings.  As well as a permanent magnet which is to the left or right of the coil depending on which direction you tilt the flashlight. This is because the magnet slides through the coil wire when tilted or shaken.

The power that is generated each time you shake the flashlight will vary depending on this magnet and the number of windings of the copper wire. The stronger the magnet is the more power it will produce.


The higher the number of windings of the copper wire the more power is generated from each shake.

You will also find a simple circuit. I will explain where the simple circuit come into play in just a moment. When there's a changing magnetic field in the flashlights wire coil there will be an induced current. The induced current is then sent in a direction to create a magnetic field that opposed the changing magnetic field that was created as a result of the magnet sliding through the wire coil. The current that is created by the process of the magnet sliding through the coil is taking by the simple circuit I mentioned before. The simple circuit then charges a capacitor. Finally, the capacitor acts as the power source for the flashlight. The quality of capacitors will vary among flashlights. However, I can tell the higher the quality the longer the light will shine. Also, the type of bulb that is being used is also important in regards to how long the flashlight will shine. Usually, a low watt LED used due to their low power demand.

Quick Summary 

The magnet goes back and forth through the center of a copper wire coil each time you shake the flashlight. This process generates an electrical current which is used to charge up the capacitor. The capacitor is then is usually used to a power an LED light. These flashlights are actually very simple mechanically.

Friday, November 3, 2017

Contact Us

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How To Contact Us





If you need to contact History Of Physics for any reason, please send us an email at us@history-of-physics.com

About Us

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Hi! History of Physics was created to explore our passion for physics and its history. Given you are here we can only assume you share the same passion as we do. For that, we would like to welcome you and thank you for stopping by! We're excited to get to know you and share our passion for the history of physics!  It truly makes us happy getting the opportunity to share, engage with and hopefully inspire people from all over the world.


Tuesday, October 31, 2017

How much does an average box of cereal weigh?

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Weight of Cereal


The weight of the cereal will depend on a couple of factors such as the density of the cereal and the size of the box. Most bands of cereals come in a wide variety of sizes. Much like t-shirt sizes, you can expect sizes ranging from small to large. Unlike clothing sizes, however, you will also see sizes like family and giant as well. That said there is no consistency among cereal manufactures in regards to weight. For example, a family size box from one manufacturer may weight 21oz and 22oz for another. This is in most part due to the wide-ranging weight of the ingredients used to make the cereal.

How many pounds does my Cereal weigh?



For this example will be using the family size fo Cheerios one of my favorites. If you are looking for a different band no worries. Almost all cereals provide the same measurements in a similar fashion so this should work for you. Near the bottom left-hand corner of the box of Cheerios, I found it's net weight measurements.  This box of cereal weighs 21 ounces. If you translate that to pounds you will get 1.3125 pounds. If you are looking for grams then the 21 ounces becomes 595 grams as stated on the box.

How much does the average box of Cereal weigh?

There is no clear answer this question. The list below will give you quick overlook of the sizes you may find when shopping for cereals.

 13 oz (370 grams)

 14 oz (396 grams)

 16.2 oz (459 grams)

18 oz (510 grams)

 21oz (595 grams)

As you can see the sizes are all over the place and this is just a small sample. That said the average size should weigh around 500 grams. This is because that is roughly the weight of a medium size box of cereal. 




Monday, October 30, 2017

What is Quantum Physics? How does it differ from Newtonian Physics?

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Whats The Difference Between Quantum Physics And Newtonian Physics?


You may be wondering what quantum physics is and how it differs from Newtonian physics? This may be a really board summary, however, this should provide you with a clear understanding of quantum physics is and its relationship to Newtonian Physics. 

Quick Explanation of Quantum Physics



Quantum physics or quantum mechanics depicts how things behave on an extremely tiny scale such as with atoms or subatomic particles. The primary idea behind quantum physics is that there are things that we ordinarily consider to be particles that in certain situations act like they're really waves. This goes the other way around as well. Some things that we normally think of as waves sometimes act like they are particles. For example, we usually think of electrons as particles. And we usually think of light as being a wave. Often times they do act just as you may think. However, situations do exist where the opposite is true of both. This idea is referred to as wave-particle duality.

What Makes Newtonian Physics different from Quantum?



Newtonian physics is the science of that which is anything larger than subatomic. It's essentially how physical reality works. So it's things equivalent to atoms and molecules. But the key difference is the extremely precise set of results you get with Newtonian Physics.

Newton displayed this with his billiard ball analysis. If you hit a billiard ball and it hits another billiard ball there's a result that happens.  At the quantum level, there's something referred to as potentiality. Where things happen at a level of potentiality. What this all means is there's always more than one result waiting to happen in a whole array of potentials that may possibly happen. Therefore nothing is definite.

Quantum Mechanics Real World Example




You may be asking how does this apply to the real world? Werner Heisenberg a renown theoretical physicist gave us an excellent example of this. Heisenberg said when we observe something both the observer and the observed change. This is why psychology is so nice because when you begin observing your history. Both you and your history will no longer be the same. You get to alter everything by the means that you simply examine it. Once we investigate something we modify both it and ourselves. Understanding how that works as well as its impact is how intention works.


Dean Radin's Mind-Blowing Quantum Mechanics Experiment



Dean Radin an outstanding scientist with Noetic Sciences did some marvelous research with random event generators. He did this to point out how our intentions have an effect on random events. Logic deceitfully tells us random events ought to play out like flipping a coin. Radin, however, was able to show there's a huge change once our intention is locked on to a selected outcome. For one experiment on the topic, Radin established a program that would generate random pictures. Radin got volunteers for this experiment and wired them up. He wired their respiratory, heart, skin conductivity, and so on. Then proceeded to show them random pictures. A number of the images were exciting images. Some of them were erotic images. A number of them were fearful images. Every image was set to induce an emotional response.

Radin would then show the volunteers these images at random showing them the images and measuring the body's responses to those images. And as you would expect the body responded accordingly. The volunteers would begin to sweat if it had been an exciting or nerve-racking scenario. The heartbeats would change the respiratory would change. All the things you'd usually expect. Radin's team went into the research a bit deeper and began to examine the timeline. This is when they discovered something utterly amazing. The volunteer's bodies responded more or less one-tenth of a second prior to the image. Before the image showed up the body knew. Dean Radin had the first analysis to point out that we know before we know. He said it appears that we send out a quantum wave to meet our own future. What we think really does have an impact on reality. Our mind acts as a filtering mechanism and slows information down so we are able to comprehend it. It's filtering out all types of information or else we'd feel utterly swamped with the constant bombardment of information. Absolutely amazing right?!!


Monday, August 14, 2017

Ancient Greece: Philons "Bird and snake"

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This one does not have any practical use. It might just be used for amusement.
Note that you can make the tree invisible, by pressing the invisible-button.

There is water in a reservoir. A bole is mounted on it. It has libs, a bird's nest and birds mounted on it.
A snake is swimming in the water. When water is filled in through the small holes on the right, the water rises and the snake rises, heading towards the birds.
The great bird now defends its little fellows. The rising water moves the bird and swings it's wings.
By sucreasing the water, the snake hides somewhere and the bird, now shure of it's sucess, goes back to the little birds. The presentation is finished. 

Ancient Rome: The water organ of Vitruvius

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According to Vitruvius, Ktesibios was the first to build an organ like this. The water organ of Vitruvius is an enhanced verion, which uses two cylinders.
Organs were used especially in the late Classical Antiquity. We are not quite sure wheter the Romans used Vitruvius' notes, or notes of other mechanics.

The two plungers are moved up and down. If you move a plunger down, air (red) flows through a valve. If you move it up, the valve closes and the air is piped to the hemisphere.
This hemisphere is placed in a reservoir, filled with water. The air is partially compressed, and partially the water is pressed down the hemisphere by the air. The water line in the reservoir rises. One part of the air floats thorugh a pipe on the top of the hemisphere.
There the air floats, passing another valve, in a chamber, whis is connected to the pipes. If a key is pressed, a valve opens. Air floats through a pipe, a tone is created.
The interesting part about this organ is, that water keeps an instant pressure. If air floats out of a pipe, the pressure in the reservoir decreases. The water line sinks and the pressure is restorred to normal.   

Ancient Rome: The Odometer Of Vitruv

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There might have been other Odometers before Vitruv, but only his' survived.
If you pull Vitruvs' wagon, the wheel, as you could imagine, rotates. A finger is mounted on one wheel. This finger rotates a gear (grey) on each turn. This gear should have 400 cleats. One of those cleats is extended. This extension rotates another gear (blue), which lies horizontal.
This horizontal gear is only rotated once per mile, because the big wheel rotates slowly.
There are about 25 holes in the horizontal gear. In it are small stones. When the wheel turns, one stone will fall into a pot.
If you want to count the miles you went on one day, you just have to count how many stones are in that pot. The number of stones equals the miles you went.

Ancient Greece: The Water Clock (Clepsydra) Of Ktesibios

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Water clocks were placed on public places in Ancient Greece. Even more often you could see them in court, to limit the speech time.
Water fills a canister. A float is lifted. A figure is mounted on its top, which points to a cylinder-shaped board. On the board are 24 squares, which stand for hours.
When the canister is full (24 hours have passed), the water flows through the pipe. The out flown water powers a gear, which rotates the board. The further the board rotates, the more days pass.

This simple piece of mechanics, adjusted rightly, could be quite precise.

Ancient Greece: Herons Trumpet Signal

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For the use in temples, Heron proposes following construction in his 'Pneumatic':
A rope is mounted on the door of the temple, which pulls a lever. This lever pushes a hemisphere into a water jar. The water presses air into the hemisphere. This air will now float through a trumpet, which is mounted on the hemisphere. A tone is created by pressure.
If the door is closed, the lever falls back to its first position. The hemisphere lifts and air will float into it.

Ancient Greece: The repeating catapult of Dionysius of Alexandria

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Dionysius of Alexandria invented this wonder of ancient Greece mechanics. The catapults accuracy has not been beaten in Ancient Times. We do not know if it was used on greater occasions.
The only thing one has to do is to turn the wheel back and forth. The wheel moves two chains, which in turn moves a slider.
On the slider lies the arrow. A claw keeps hold of the bowstring. The claw lifts, when a joint is rotated. The arrow flies away.
An arrow magazine is attached on top. The arrows make their way through a rotating tray with cam groove. The tray rotates, when the finger moves back and forth inside the cam groove.